西方美术史之入门

最近读将勋的《写给大家的西方美术史》,是一本非常好的西方美术史的入门书,最大体会是艺术不分国界,政治可能改朝换代,宗教信仰可能冲突对立,艺术的形式却是承先启后,无法中断。用一句话概括西方美术史:埃及艺术->希腊艺术->罗马艺术->早期基督教艺术->文艺复兴艺术->新古典主义->浪漫主义->写实主义->印象派->现代艺术(野兽派、立体派、抽象主义、超现实主义、波普艺术、行为艺术等)。其代表作品如下:

埃及艺术

埃及艺术特点:有一种庄严、端正、规矩的纪律之美;埃及人在建筑、绘画、雕刻三方面建立了他们全面的美术成就。

希腊艺术
罗马艺术

希腊艺术&罗马艺术之间的几点特点:
1.罗马艺术传承自希腊艺术,希腊雕像倾向“理想”,而罗马雕刻追求“真实”,成为辨别两大艺术的本质关键。
2希腊,代表神话、史诗和哲学;罗马,代表政治和法制。
3.希腊空间大多为方形,结构上也以垂直和水平的柱梁为主;罗马发展出了新的建筑符号圆拱。

早期基督教艺术
文艺复兴艺术

罗马艺术&早期基督教艺术&文艺复兴艺术之间的几点特点:
1.罗马帝国的权力拥有者信奉希腊诸神,追求权力、财富和肉体上无止境的欲求。
2.早期基督教的信仰与希腊罗马诸神的信仰正好完全相反。
3.早期基督教是穷人的信仰,是受压迫这的信仰,鄙弃肉体,强调禁欲,否定希腊诸神,相信宇宙间唯一的真神。
4.文艺复兴时期,中产阶级日益增大,有着对现世生活的热情,开始摒弃强调禁欲的思想,以理性的方式重新思考信仰,吸收希腊罗马艺术,肯定世俗繁华与感官享受,融入基督教性灵生活,追求精神升华。

新古典主义
浪漫主义
写实主义

新古典主义&浪漫主义&写实主义之间的几点特点:
1.新古典主义试图回到古代,试图以希腊、罗马的传统为最高美学标准,画面结构严谨,人物配合精准的解剖学比例,空间合于科学的三度深透视,架构了西方学院美术的一套准则。
2.浪漫主义发现了新古典主义的限制,没有热情的理性会徒具躯壳,流于空洞的教条形式,吸收了非洲、亚洲,甚至美洲异国风情,迷恋激情,相信激情比理性更能成为创作的动力。
3.浪漫主义修正了新古典主义的过分拘谨,打破了理性的框架,却又把人们带到感官迷乱的状态。
4.写实主义默默回到土地上,走向平凡朴实的小镇农村,叩访土地里劳苦生活的平民百姓,用最谦逊不炫耀的色彩书写土地与人的故事。

印象派
野兽派
立体派
抽象主义
超现实主义
波普艺术

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