纵观中国美术史,最爱八大山人

中国画起源于文字——甲骨文,可谓书画同源。第一个留下名字的大画家是顾恺之,已经在东晋时期,留下的代表作有《女史箴图》和《列女传图》,大多是根据文学作品的描述来创作的,这个时期的画风可以叫做”春蚕吐丝“。

敦煌石窟记录了中国绘画的发展,从印度佛像逐步本土化,到了唐代,完全形成中国特色的佛像,同时发展了宫廷画,以画帝王、贵族、国事、马等政治题材为主,代表作有阎立本的《历代帝王图》和《步辇图》,到唐中后期,开始出现女性为题材的作品,如张萱的《虢国夫人游春图》和周昉的《簪花仕女图》,山水画呈现青绿山水或金碧山水风格。

五代,荆(浩)、关(仝)、董(源)、巨(然)四人开创了中国山水水墨画的技法。荆浩的《匡庐图》、关仝的《关山行旅图》、董源的《潇湘图》、巨然的《秋山问道图》。

北宋之后,画风变得非常严谨,有很多写实的花鸟画,如赵昌的《岁朝图》。山水画也一样“格物”,经过写生的观察训练,对每一种岩石的质地、皴法研究,对水的波纹、树叶的构成,甚至季节的变化,都仔细加以观察分析,产生了中国最好的山水画,如范宽的《溪山行旅图》。北宋的山水画以纵向为主,表现高大的山,到南宋常常画成横卷,表现秀气的山。如马远的《山径春行图》,此次诗、书、画开始结合在一起,并发展出了以兰、竹、梅为主题的人文画。宋代经济繁荣、商业发达,出现很多描绘城市居民生活景象的画,成为宋代绘画的一个特色,最著名的是张择端的《清明上河图》,宋代的人物画以普通市民为主。

宋末元初,开始追求“自然”、“随意”,“元四大家”,吴镇的《渔父图》、黄公望的《富春山居图》、倪瓒的《容膝斋图》、王蒙的《青卞隐居图》,都有一种文人隐士风格。

明代发扬了文人画,领导人物是沈周,还有诗书画三绝的文徽明、个性潇洒的唐寅,泼墨的徐渭。明末四僧:八大山人、石涛、渐江、石溪。其中八大山人的画达到了中国水墨画“简单”的极致,代表作《鱼石图》。

清代之后,受西方绘画影响,开始画日常蔬果写生画,很像水彩画。齐白石也经常以这类题材为画,他原来学习的八大山人的画,后来又加上了鲜艳的颜色,是中国画充满了华丽的色彩。徐悲鸿是最早到欧洲学习西方绘画的中国画家之一,用中国画水墨画的工具,加上西方的技巧训练,创造了一种新的水墨画风格。

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