复杂世界的简单法则

最近读《规模》,了解到一些复杂世界的简单法则挺有意思的。

动物体重越大,代谢率(每天需要多少食物才能生存)就越高;一种动物体重如果是另一种的2倍,代谢率实际上只增长了75%,规模每扩大一倍,便会产生25%的节余;一种动物体重如果增长1倍,心率会降低25%;动物一生中心跳次数跟体重无关,是个恒定值。

重量和强度的关系:重量对体积,强度对横截面级,重量每增长至原来的1个数量级的倍数,强度只会增长直原来的2/3个数量级的倍数。场景1:人的力量随体重的增长以2/3个数量级的比率增长。个体偏差,表现出超过这个斜率就是世界上最强壮的人;应用2:儿童药量,随着儿童体重增长1倍,药量不能增加1倍,而只要2/3个数量级。

无论生命体、城市还是公司,都可以统一为同样的网络模型:由空间填充,有恒定的终端单元,将液体输送至整个系统所需的能量最小化。以生命体为例,这个由心脏和血管完成,为尽量减少心脏负担,经过不断进化,使得血管网络的任何分支点都不存在反射现象,分支点出发的子血管横截面面积总和与抵达分支点的母血管的横截面面积总和相等,即分形理论。

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